Food Intolerance: The Role of Histamine
Histamine is a natural amine derived from L-histidine. Although it seems that our knowledge about this molecule is wide and diverse, the importance of histamine in many regulatory processes is still enigmatic.
The interplay between different types of histamine receptors and the compound may cause ample effects, including histamine intoxication and so-called histamine intolerance or non-allergic food intolerance, leading to disturbances in immune regulation, manifestation of gastroenterological symptoms, and neurological diseases.
Most cases of clinical manifestations of histamine intolerance are non-specific due to tissue-specific distribution of different histamine receptors and the lack of reproducible and reliable diagnostic markers.
The diagnosis of histamine intolerance is fraught with difficulties, in addition to challenges related to the selection of a proper treatment strategy, the regular course of recovery, and reduced amelioration of chronic symptoms due to inappropriate treatment prescription.
Here, we reviewed a history of histamine uptake starting from the current knowledge about its degradation and the prevalence of histamine precursors in daily food, and continuing with the receptor interactions after entering and the impacts on the immune, central nervous, and gastrointestinal systems.
The purpose of this review is to build an extraordinarily specific method of histamine cycle assessment in regard to non-allergic intolerance and its possible dire consequences that can be suffered.